In 2005 NASA initiated an effort at Goddard Space Flight Center (GFSC) to address the gap in validation measurements through the development of cost-effective, easy to deploy, ground-based spectrometer called Pandora.
Resulting from the combined effort of Jay Herman, Alexander Cede and Nader Abuhassan, the Pandora is a compact, modestly-priced sun/sky/lunar passive UV/Visible grating spectrometer system. Over the past decade, the NASA Pandora Project together with the ESA Pandonia project, have endeavored to mature and refine the Pandora spectrometer system.
Presently, the NASA Pandora Project and ESA-Pandonia are collaborating to coordinate and facilitate an expanding global network of standardized, calibrated Pandora instruments focused on air quality and atmospheric composition. This effort is known as the Pandonia Global Network (PGN) which endeavors to ensure systematic processing and dissemination of the data to the greater global community in support of in-situ and remotely sensed AQ monitoring.
The launch of PGN in mid-2019 represents a programmatic shift by NASA and ESA towards establishing long-term fixed locations focused on providing long-term quality observations of total column and vertically resolved concentrations of a range of trace gases. A major joint objective is to support the validation and verification of more than a dozen low-earth orbit and geostationary orbit based UV-visible sensors, most notably Sentinel 5P, TEMPO, GEMS and Sentinel 4.
PGN provides real-time, standardized, calibrated and verified QA/QC AQ data. PGN also seeks to coordinate and implement network standards regarding common algorithms and data processing, instrument operating routines, QA/QC, real-time data processing and data archiving. PGN participants are primarily comprised of governmental and academic researchers and technicians.